In a narrative review published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers explored the present evidence on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in various metabolic conditions, including obesity, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and kind 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They examined its potential modulation through various dietary approaches.
Dietary impact on fasting and stimulated GLP-1 secretion in several metabolic conditions – a narrative review. Image Credit: Inna Dodor / Shutterstock
T2DM poses a big health concern globally, with obesity as a significant risk factor. Nutrition may very well be vital in addressing this issue via energy deficits and targeted food selections that impact health. A gastrointestinal peptide hormone named GLP-1 has emerged as a key player in obesity and T2DM management, influencing pancreatic function, blood glucose, satiety, and food intake. Despite reduced GLP-1 secretion in T2DM, GLP-1 analogs have shown therapeutic success, prompting research into enhancing endogenous GLP-1 secretion through dietary adjustments. Strategies specializing in postprandial GLP-1 secretion via weight loss program modification also offer therapeutic potential in combating obesity and T2DM.
The current review discusses fasting and postprandial GLP-1 secretion in individuals with various metabolic conditions and degrees of glucose intolerance, further examining the impact of several diet-related aspects.
Physiological functions of GLP-1 contained in the gut-brain-pancreas axis
GLP-1 is primarily produced by enteroendocrine L-cells within the gastrointestinal tract and exhibits postprandial secretion influenced by nutrient sensing by activated G-protein-coupled receptors. In vitro and animal studies indicate that dietary fiber-derived nutrients and short-chain fatty acids stimulate GLP-1 secretion. GLP-1 functions as an incretin, enhancing insulin secretion, reducing glucagon release, increasing pancreatic β-cell mass, regulating gastrointestinal motility, and potentially contributing to neuroprotection, making it a promising goal for dietary interventions and further research.
GLP-1 secretion amongst individuals with different metabolic profiles
Studies on GLP-1 secretion in individuals with different metabolic profiles, including obesity and T2DM, have yielded conflicting results, with some indicating reduced GLP-1 levels in these conditions, while a recent meta-analysis suggested generally small and heterogeneous variations, emphasizing the necessity for comprehensive investigations into GLP-1 secretion across diverse metabolic states.
Glucose-stimulated GLP-1 response
The review analyzed 13 studies investigating GLP-1 response to an ordinary 75 g glucose oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with different metabolic conditions, including normal weight (NW), chubby (OW), normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and T2DM. Results indicated various GLP-1 levels and responses across groups, with individuals with NGT achieving a peak sooner than those with IGT or T2DM. Associations were observed between GLP-1 and aspects comparable to insulin sensitivity, age, and BMI, emphasizing the necessity for further research accounting for confounding aspects like BMI and sex.
Food-stimulated GLP-1 response
The review moreover analyzed studies employing mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTT) to evaluate GLP-1 responses in individuals with NGT, IGT, or T2DM. Results from varied meal challenges indicated each increased and decreased GLP-1 responses in T2DM in comparison with NGT/IGT. Heterogeneity in test meals and inconsistencies in GLP-1 responses highlight the necessity for further research with well-characterized cohorts to judge meal-stimulated GLP-1 responses higher.
Role of meal composition for GLP-1 secretion
Examining the impact of whole meals or meal patterns on GLP-1 secretion is crucial for understanding human nutrition, as meal composition can significantly influence the outcomes of MMTT/challenge meal studies. The evaluation of 14 intervention studies using test meals revealed inconclusive findings. Nonetheless, interventions incorporating plant-based foods, a vegan meal, or higher fiber and protein content showed increased postprandial GLP-1 secretion in individuals with different metabolic profiles. Nonetheless, the impact of carbohydrate composition on GLP-1 responses appears conflicting.
GLP-1 secretion after mid- and long-term dietary interventions
Controlled intervention studies examining medium- to long-term dietary effects on GLP-1 secretion in humans are scarce. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that health-promoting diets comparable to paleo or Mediterranean dietary approaches to stop hypertension (MIND) may enhance fasting and postprandial GLP-1 secretion. Moreover, increased protein content, observed in high-protein diets or protein-enriched meals, appears to contribute to sustained improvements in GLP-1 levels. Nonetheless, the limited variety of comparative studies calls for further research to elucidate dietary interventions’ mechanisms and long-term effects on GLP-1 regulation.
The effect of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic interventions on GLP-1 secretion
Human intervention studies examining the results of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic interventions on GLP-1 secretion show inconclusive results. While some studies report increased GLP-1 levels with probiotic or synbiotic supplementation, others find no significant effects, highlighting the necessity for further research and standardized methodologies on this area.
Weight loss program-related aspects impacting GLP-1 secretion
The varied diet-related aspects potentially influencing GLP-1 secretion are body mass index (BMI), weight reduction, glucose tolerance, meal composition, size and processing, gender, and gut microbiota. Standardized meal tests with detailed nutrient composition and gut-related analyses in well-defined cohorts are essential for robust conclusions regarding GLP-1 responses.
The current review emphasizes the inconsistency in GLP-1 studies. Nonetheless, it highlights the influence of things comparable to metabolic profile, sex, gut microbiome, glucose tolerance, BMI, antidiabetic medication, eating behavior, and nutrient composition. Modulation of GLP-1 secretion through dietary interventions, particularly within the context of long-term diets and food patterns, holds potential for the prevention and holistic treatment of metabolic conditions, necessitating further research on this area.