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Global study reveals varied intention to receive monkeypox vaccine: 61% prevalence worldwide

In a recent study published in BMC Public Health, a gaggle of researchers assessed the worldwide prevalence and regional differences within the intention to receive the monkeypox (Mpox) vaccine through a scientific review and meta-analysis.

Study: Prevalence of intentions to receive monkeypox vaccine. A scientific review and meta-analysis. Image Credit: angellodeco/Shutterstock.com


In the present public health scenario, stopping and controlling emerging infectious diseases, including Mpox, has change into crucial. Immunization is a key strategy in mitigating the spread of such diseases and protecting community health.

Mpox, attributable to the Mpox virus and belonging to the Poxviridae family, was once rare but has recently prompted a world health emergency as a result of its expanding reach. With a mortality rate between 1 to 10%, understanding public willingness to vaccinate against Mpox is significant.

Various aspects, including sociodemographic and psychological points, influence vaccine acceptance.

Further research is required to know the complex aspects influencing vaccine acceptance, thereby enhancing communication strategies and public health policies for higher prevention and response to Mpox and future outbreaks.

In regards to the study 

The current research, registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist guidelines, included cross-sectional studies that focused on the prevalence of intent to vaccinate against Mpox, without imposing limitations on language, time period, or geographic location. Studies that were incomplete or deviated from the research objectives were excluded. 

The research involved extensive database searches in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ScienceDirect, utilizing key terms corresponding to “Mpox,” “monkeypox,” “vaccine,” and “attitude.”

This initial search and subsequent updates were conducted between July 1 and July 24, 2023. Using the Rayyan tool, duplicates were removed, and articles were preliminarily chosen based on titles and abstracts, followed by full report reviews to make sure compliance with inclusion criteria.

The study focused on two essential outcomes: the intention to vaccinate against Mpox and the refusal to vaccinate. These were assessed based on participant responses regarding their willingness or likelihood to be vaccinated or to refuse vaccination.

The standard of the included studies was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Evaluation of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) method by two independent researchers, with discrepancies resolved by a 3rd investigator.

Data from chosen articles were rigorously extracted by two researchers, including details corresponding to publication 12 months, country, sample size, primary writer, study population, gender, prevalence of intent and refusal to vaccinate, survey type, and data collection date. A 3rd researcher verified this data for accuracy. 

Data evaluation was performed using R software. Estimating the joint prevalence of vaccination intent employed a random-effects model with inverse variance weighting.

Heterogeneity amongst studies was assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic and I2 index, and publication bias was examined using funnel-shaped graphs and Egger’s regression test.

Subgroup analyses were based on the study population and continent, with pooled prevalence of vaccination intent presented in forest plot format, including 95% confidence intervals.

Study results 

The current comprehensive study, 4,950 articles were identified through systematic searches across five databases. After duplicates were removed, 4,586 articles remained, and a radical evaluation was conducted on 60 full-text articles from which, ultimately, 29 studies met the eligibility criteria.

The included studies encompassed cross-sectional research articles from 19 countries, published between 2020 and 2023, involving 52,658 participants. Most participants were men, 84.59%, while women accounted for 15.26%.

The studies targeted various populations, including most of the people, healthcare professionals, and the intersex (LGBTI) community, utilizing online surveys tailored for every group.

The standard of those cross-sectional studies was assessed using the JBI-MAStARI tool, revealing a high level of quality.

Nevertheless, Egger’s test for evaluating publication bias suggested potential asymmetry in results as a result of a major p-value of 0.0005, indicating that while wide differences in reported prevalence values were evident, publication bias couldn’t be conclusively demonstrated.

The first end result, the prevalence of the intention to vaccinate against Mpox, was found to be 61% (95% CI: 53–69%; 52,658 participants; 29 studies; I2 = 100%), which varied by continent.

In Asian countries, the intention to vaccinate was 64% (95% CI: 53–74%; 13,883 participants; 17 studies; I2 = 99%), in African countries 43% (95% CI: 39–47%; 1,538 participants; 3 studies; I2 = 53%), in European countries 62% (95% CI: 45–78%; 35,811 participants; 6 studies; I2 = 99%), and in American countries 63% (95% CI: 32–89%; 1,426 participants; 3 studies; I2 = 99%). 

Different vaccination intention prevalences were observed when analyzing the info based on the goal population.

These figures highlighted significant variations within the willingness to vaccinate against Mpox amongst different continents and populations, demonstrating the importance of understanding regional and demographic aspects in vaccine uptake strategies.

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