A recent BMC Medicine study assesses adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) recommendations and their impact on cancer incidence in the UK.
Study: Adherence to the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Cancer Prevention Recommendations and risk of 14 lifestyle-related cancers within the UK Biobank prospective cohort study. Image Credit: Jo Panuwat D / Shutterstock.com
Various lifestyle aspects, including physical activity, body composition, and weight loss plan, have been related to the incidence of several forms of cancers. Within the U.K., about 40% of cancer cases are related to modifiable risk aspects, including obesity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and insufficient dietary fiber intake.
WCRF/AICR published ten Cancer Prevention Recommendations, which were updated in 2018, based on healthy lifestyle patterns to scale back the danger of cancer and other non-communicable diseases. Although several studies have assessed whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations influenced cancer incidence and survival rates, most of those studies didn’t consider probably the most recent recommendations.
In the newest version, the previous suggestion of less salt consumption has been removed, and a limited intake of sugar-sweetened drinks has been included. As well as, a previous suggestion published in 2007 advisable a minimum consumption of 25 grams of dietary fiber each day, which was increased to at the very least 30 grams each day within the 2018 version.
A meta-analysis and systematic review documented significant adherence to the 2007 Cancer Prevention Recommendations that reduced the danger of colorectal, lung, and breast cancer. Greater adherence to the recommendations also reduced the general cancer-specific mortality.
Importantly, different approaches were used to calculate adherence to the recommendations, which resulted in differential assessment outcomes. Due to this fact, there may be a necessity for a standardized assessment to supply consistency and comparability between studies.
On this context, Shams-White and colleagues developed a standardized scoring system in 2019 that operationalized seven of the ten recommendations. Nonetheless, few studies have used this technique to evaluate adherence to the 2018 Cancer Prevention Recommendations.
In regards to the study
The present U.K. Biobank prospective cohort study evaluated the association between adherence to 2018 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations using a standardized fully operationalizing rating and the danger of multiple cancers. To this end, the researchers assessed how weight loss plan, nutrition, and physical activity influenced the danger of all types of invasive cancers, in addition to fourteen specific cancers, including those affecting the uterus, bladder, gallbladder, colorectal, kidney, head and neck, breast, lungs, prostate, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, liver, and, ovaries.
The study cohort included over 500,000 participants recruited from 22 centers across England, Wales, and Scotland between 2006 and 2010. The U.K. Biobank cohort included participants between the ages of 37 and 73 years, about 56% female.
A complete of 94,778 UK Biobank participants were chosen for the present study. During a median follow-up after 7.9 years, 7,296 participants were diagnosed with cancer, probably the most common of which was prostate, followed by breast and colorectal cancers.
A big inverse correlation was observed between the whole adherence rating and the danger of all cancers. A 7% reduction in cancer risk was observed on every one-point increment within the rating, which was adjusted for age, ethnicity, sex, smoking status, and deprivation.
Individuals with 3.75-4.25 point and 4.5–7 point rating tertiles exhibited an 8% and 16% lower risk of developing all sorts of cancers, respectively. Likewise, one Swedish study indicated a 3% reduction in cancer risk for each one-point increment in rating. These differential reduction values indicate the necessity to determine associations using the worldwide population.
The present study estimated a ten% reduction in the danger of breast cancer on every one-point increment in adherence rating. Individuals whose adherence rating was between 5.75-7 points were at the bottom risk of breast cancer incidence.
A ten% reduction in incidence risk for colorectal cancer was observed for each one-point increment in rating. For the sort of cancer, participants belonging to the center and highest rating tertiles were at a lower risk of cancer incidence.
Greater adherence to the 2018 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations reduced the danger of esophageal, kidney, gallbladder, ovarian, and liver cancers. Consistent with the present study findings, a previous EPIC Study similarly indicated a 42% reduced risk of esophageal, kidney, and liver cancers following the 2007 version of the WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations.
The present study revealed that greater adherence to the 2018 version of WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations reduced the danger of various kinds of cancers, including ovarian, breast, kidney, gallbladder, colorectal, oesophageal, and liver cancers. These findings strongly support the 2018 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations to forestall/reduce cancer incidence within the U.K.
In the longer term, similar studies ought to be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the recommendations on other global populations. Nonetheless, most of these studies must incorporate a standardized methodology to enable comparability across studies.
- Malcomson, F. C., Parra-Soto, S., Ho, F. K., et al. (2023) Adherence to the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Cancer Prevention Recommendations and risk of 14 lifestyle-related cancers within the UK Biobank prospective cohort study. BMC Medicine 21(407). doi:10.1186/s12916-023-03107-y