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Study links lifestyle selections and gender to severity of fatty liver disease in staff

In a recent study published within the journal Nutrients, researchers determine whether certain aspects similar to lifestyle, gender, and risks of inflammation, liver dysfunction, and metabolic abnormalities correlate with the severity of fatty liver disease.

Study: Unraveling the Connection between Fatty Liver Severity with Gender, Lifestyle, and Health Risks amongst Employees. Image Credit: Peakstock /


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is believed to afflict one-third of the worldwide population, with its prevalence inside Asia estimated to be about 30%. Furthermore, several studies have reported incidence rates ranging between 28% and 52% amongst adults between the ages of 17 and 65 years.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease increases the chance of multisystemic illnesses similar to metabolic abnormalities, heart problems, renal problems, and sort 2 diabetes. Moreover, this disease can progress to liver cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma.

Genetic, metabolic, epigenetic, and lifestyle-associated aspects can contribute to the etiology of fatty liver disease. Individuals who’re genetically vulnerable to the disease are susceptible to developing fatty liver disease when sedentary and participating in unhealthy lifestyles, which results in fat accumulation and adiposity. Increasing evidence also suggests that gender is perhaps a big determinant of fatty liver disease risk.

Concerning the study

The current study was conducted as a part of Taiwan’s workplace health promotion scheme, which goals to periodically evaluate the necessities and hazards related to employees’ health. Participation within the study was voluntary, and every participant was asked to answer a questionnaire with a health personnel coding all responses for anonymity and confidentiality.

Individuals above the age of 20 from three of central Taiwan’s industrial enterprises involved in manufacturing transportation equipment, automobile parts, and electronic components were recruited for the study. Lifestyle habits related to health, including physical activity levels, dietary selections, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior, were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. The categories on nutrition and exercise included nine and eight elements, respectively, with responses graded on a four-point Likert scale.

The nutrition categories pertained to selections of low-fat food plan, restricted sugar consumption, consumption of fruits, vegetables, cereals, poultry, eggs, nuts, fish, meat, legumes, and dairy, in addition to knowledge of the dietary content of foods based on food labels. The exercise category examined engagement in and adherence to physical activity, frequency and intensity of physical activity, and pulse and heart rate monitoring during exercise.

Based on smoking behavior, the participants were classified as non-smokers, occasional smokers, or each day smokers. Alcohol consumption was categorized as occasional and each day drinking.

Ultrasound images were used to evaluate the severity of fatty liver, with grades including the absence of mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver. Data similar to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, triglyceride levels, fasting blood glucose, and levels of high-density lipoprotein were also gathered to evaluate metabolic risk aspects.

Platelet and white blood cell assays were performed to discover cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers. Glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase levels were also measured to evaluate liver function.

Study findings

A gender-based trend within the prevalence of fatty liver, unhealthy lifestyle selections, and health risks was observed, with men at a greater risk than women. Roughly 45% of the participants had fatty liver. Furthermore, the scores from the health behavior questionnaires showed that physical activity levels and fatty liver severity were negatively correlated.

Current alcohol drinkers within the categories of fatty liver severity varied, with the group having no fatty liver comprising 43% current alcohol drinkers and mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver categories consisting of 48.4%, 44.8%, and 63.4% current alcohol drinkers, respectively.

The severity of fatty liver was related to the next risk of metabolic abnormalities. Liver dysfunction and inflammation also exhibited a positive correlation with fatty liver severity.

The upper prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver amongst men as in comparison with women may very well be explained by variations in lifestyle habits between women and men within the Taiwanese population. Male staff were observed to have interaction in unhealthier lifestyle habits similar to poor dietary selections, increased smoking, and better alcohol consumption than female staff. Other studies have also reported that ladies are more engaged in health-promoting lifestyle habits and selections.

Severe fatty liver was related to certain parameters indicating the next risk of heart problems and metabolic abnormalities, similar to higher blood pressure, larger waist circumference, and elevated triglyceride levels.


Among the many population of Taiwanese staff examined in the present study, fatty liver had a forty five.5% prevalence, with men at a greater risk of fatty liver and other associated health risks than women. The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver was correlated with lower physical activity levels, in addition to unhealthy lifestyle habits similar to poor food plan, smoking behavior, and high alcohol intake.

The chance of liver dysfunction and inflammation was also higher for people with severe fatty liver. These findings highlight the necessity to promote health-enhancing lifestyle selections.

Journal reference:

  • Tang, F., Li, R., & Huang, J. (2023). Unraveling the Connection between Fatty Liver Severity with Gender, Lifestyle, and Health Risks amongst Employees. Nutrients 15(22). doi:10.3390/nu15224765
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