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Boost your heart health: Taurine and black pepper combo shows promising cardioprotective effects

An increased intake of a Western weight loss program, comprising high proportions of saturated fats, sugar, and salt, together with sedentary lifestyles, has augmented the worldwide burden of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading reason behind death worldwide. In 2019, an estimated 17.9 million people died from CVDs, accounting for 32% of all global deaths. 85 percent of those deaths were attributable to a heart attack or a stroke.

For a lot of centuries, natural products have been used for the treatment of many diseases. Recently, taurine and black pepper have gained much attention on account of their cardioprotective effects, based on anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, antioxidative, and anti-atherosclerotic properties.

Recently, scientists reviewed the present literature to grasp whether a mix of taurine and black pepper extract is effective in reducing heart problems risk aspects. This review is offered within the journal Nutrients.

Study: Combination of Taurine and Black Pepper Extract as a Treatment for Cardiovascular and Coronary Artery Diseases.Image Credit: Lerkrat Tangsri / Shutterstock

Cardiovascular Events and Alternative Treatments

Cardiovascular diseases are related to multiple conditions that affect the guts and blood vessels. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that CVDs will contribute to over 22 million deaths annually by 2030. Multiple diseases are categorized under CVDs, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure (HF), stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and coronary artery disease (CAD). A few of the aspects that enhance the danger of CVDs are hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), cholesterol, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type-2 diabetes.

Common phenotypes within the pathogenesis of CVDs are endothelial dysfunction, hyper-inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress. These are the first targets for therapeutic intervention to forestall or alleviate CVDs. Although conventional treatments for CVDs are effective, they’ve been related to many unwanted effects. Due to this fact, natural products with medicinal properties are attractive alternatives for CVD treatment.

Taurine and Black Peppers

Taurine is a non-toxic natural product abundantly present in human cardiac and vascular tissues. This semi-essential sulfur-containing amino acid is synthesized endogenously from cysteine and methionine. Nevertheless, the vast majority of taurine is obtained through the consumption of seafood, eggs, meat, and poultry. In humans, taurine has diverse physiological functions, including protection against many pathophysiological conditions.

Several studies have indicated that taurine has anti-oxidation, membrane stabilization, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-platelet, and anti inflammatory activities. As well as, it may well also modulate ion transporters, blood pressure, and vascular tone.

Black Peppers (Piper nigrum) is usually used to treat many diseases on account of the presence of high levels of terpenes or terpenoids. These bioactive compounds are a various class of organic compounds commonly present in plant-based essential oils. Terpenes constitute over 30,000 compounds whose functional groups include aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones.

Black pepper consists of high levels of β-caryophyllene (BCP), limonene, α-humulene, sabinene, α-pinene, and β-pinene. BCP prompts cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2R), which triggers downstream signaling pathways, and subsequently promotes anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties. Cardiovascular-protective effects of black pepper against a big selection of CVDs are attributed to its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia, and blood pressure-lowering abilities.

The Effectiveness of Combinational Therapeutic Activity of Taurine and Black Peppers Extracts on Cardiovascular Diseases

Several studies have indicated that acute and chronic inflammation plays an important role within the progression and severity of CVDs. Chronic inflammatory diseases, corresponding to atherosclerosis, CAD, and hypertension, are characterised by elevated expression of vital pro-inflammatory receptors (e.g., the receptor for advanced glycation end-products-RAGE and toll-like receptors-TLR). As well as, acute inflammation can be related to elevated levels of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Inhibition or downregulation of those aspects is a possible therapeutic goal for CVDs. Bioactive compounds present in taurine and black pepper significantly alleviate the expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators to scale back the severity of inflammation-mediated injury.

As stated above, oxidative stress is one other vital factor related to the progression of CVDs. It causes upregulation of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and endothelial dysfunction in various CVDs. Previous research has shown that black pepper terpenes and taurine can augment cell viability and restore mitochondrial function. This may, in turn, improve antioxidant balance.

Free radical scavenging assays have demonstrated antioxidant activity of α-pinene, BCP, β-pinene, and limonene. Taurine increases the expression of antioxidants, corresponding to superoxide dismutase (SOD), which may inhibit inflammation. Due to this fact, SOD is taken into account to be a protective antioxidant in CVDs. Black pepper terpenes produce cell-protective antioxidant activity by increasing glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), catalase (CAT), and SOD. These are key targets used to forestall CVDs.

Taurine reacts with hypochlorous acid to synthesize a less reactive and toxic compound, TauCl, which protects cells in response to oxidative stress. TauCl also acts as an anti-inflammatory modulator, restricting the production of pro-inflammatory aspects. Notably, TauCl improves vascular health and prevents the progression of atherosclerosis. The present study observed that dual treatment of taurine and black pepper terpenes could exert synergistic antioxidant and oxidative-protective effects, which is able to help prevent oxidative damage in cardiovascular aetiologies and other oxidative diseases.

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