Home Tips What’s Mandibular Retrognathia and How Is It Treated?

What’s Mandibular Retrognathia and How Is It Treated?

What’s Mandibular Retrognathia and How Is It Treated?

Mandibular retrognathia may cause aesthetic problems, headaches, difficulty chewing and even sleep apnea. We’ll explain what it’s and the way it’s treated here.

Mandibular retrognathia is a typical dental and facial deformity. The word retrognathia comes from the Latin retro, which implies ‘backward’; and from the Greek gnathos, which is ‘jaw’. In other words, it consists of a misalignment between the mandible and the maxillary bone.

Usually, the cause is that the mandibular bone doesn’t develop properly. Consequently, the jaw is positioned posteriorly and further back than normal. Thus, when the profile of the affected person, the altered position may be easily seen.

The issue with this malformation is that it not only affects aesthetics, but also can result in a series of dental and health complications. Do you need to know more about it? In this text, we’ll let you know what it’s, its possible causes, and what treatments can be found to deal with it.

What’s mandibular retrognathia?

Mandibular retrognathia is a bone malformation. What happens is that there’s a discrepancy between the scale of the maxillary bone and the mandibular bone. Subsequently, they’re misaligned with one another.

The importance of that is that the rows of teeth also don’t fit together. The jaw is ‘set back’ with respect to the maxilla. Based on an article from Everest Dental Clinic, that is considered one of the varieties of dental malocclusion that tends to cause problems within the bite and facial aesthetics.

It might appear since the maxilla is developed greater than normal or, quite the opposite, since the jaw is underdeveloped. It might even be a mixture of each aspects. When an individual with retrognathia in profile, the lower face has a concave shape.

It’s also referred to as class II or short jaw relationship.

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Symptoms related to this condition

Mandibular retrognathia has a big aesthetic impact. As a publication of the Maxillofacial Institute explains, there’s an abnormal relationship between the maxillary and mandibular bone. This causes facial expression to be disharmonious.

The upper dentition protrudes above the lower teeth and the mandible. Thus, when that person in profile, the chin is sunken and there is no such thing as a jaw projection. This may result in problems with  self-esteem and confidence.

Amongst other things, affected individuals often have difficulty chewing and dental problems. Similarly, there’s often involvement of the temporomandibular joint, as will likely be explained later.

What causes mandibular retrognathia?

This condition normally begins during development or growth. Nonetheless, it can occur at any time in life, although that is somewhat less common. To know why it occurs, it’s vital to grasp how the jaw normally develops.

As explained in a publication at StatPearls explains, the jaw bone begins to ossify through the sixth week of gestation . The condyle of the jaw is the part that articulates with the skull, through the temporomandibular joint. It develops later, around ten weeks of gestation.

Progressively, the mandible grows forward and downward, while the condyle also forms. Full development will likely be reached around 17 or 18 years of age in females. In males, it might reach 20 years of age.

In individuals who have mandibular retrognathia, what happens is that this growth normally stops much earlier. Consequently, the mandible is displaced backward and fails to align with the maxilla. It might also occur that the maxillary bone develops faster than normal.

When it appears in adult life, it’s attributable to different reasons. A severe injury to the jaw or temporomandibular joint can restrict growth. It might also occur when surgeries are performed on the cranial level.

Possible complications

This condition may cause serious complications, beyond aesthetic problems. For instance, some babies begin to experience problems from birth.

It’s because the misalignment between the 2 bones could make them unable to suck adequately on the mother’s nipple. Consequently, feeding becomes difficult and malnutrition problems arise.

Alternatively, the incontrovertible fact that the 2 bones don’t fit together properly signifies that the dental rows don’t fit together either. Alignment of the teeth allows chewing and grinding of food.

Subsequently, when this happens, it might be difficult to bite and chew.

As well as, as you become old, your teeth are likely to grow to be more crooked or shifted. Individuals with mandibular retrognathia often have temporomandibular joint disorders. The collected tension within the jaw and joint causes muscle spasms and severe jaw and head pain.

One other common complication is obstructive sleep apnea – that’s, respiratory problems appear during sleep, which can even result in episodes of cessation of respiratory at night. These episodes cause the person to sleep poorly and be drowsy through the day.

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Treatments available for mandibular retrognathia

Mandibular retrognathia normally requires treatment. With a view to institute treatment, it’s first vital to reach at a correct diagnosis. In many individuals, a physical examination will likely be sufficient. Nonetheless, additional tests are sometimes performed to verify the diagnosis.

Radiography is crucial. Essentially the most commonly used is the lateral cephalometric radiograph. With this method, it’s possible to make an evaluation of the skull and its complete dimensions, to examine if the jaw is less developed than normal. The angle, length, and relationship with the remaining of the facial skeleton are also studied.

Once the study is finished, treatment may be planned if essential. If the case is mild and never very symptomatic, it isn’t all the time essential to treat it. Nonetheless, in the next sections, we’ll explain which options are mostly used.

Treatment in infants and kids

Treatment of retrognathia in infants and kids is normally based on using orthodontics. The thought is that they’re still growing. Subsequently, an attempt may be made to decelerate the expansion of the jaw. This is finished by utilizing a type of headgear that puts pressure on it.

The explanation is that there is no such thing as a technique to stimulate jaw growth as such. Orthodontics can have excellent leads to mild to moderate cases. Nonetheless, severe cases normally require further treatment in adolescence or maturity.

Treatment in adolescents and adults

When growth has already slowed down, it’s very difficult to switch mandibular retrognathia with orthodontics alone. This system may be useful when the issue is only dental. That’s, it only seeks to correct the alignment or occlusion of the teeth, but not the form of the jaw.

There are patients who want to correct their features – for instance, having a deep chin or a receding chin. In these cases, if the dental problem has already been corrected, a mentoplasty could also be advisable.

Severe cases related to problems corresponding to sleep apnea normally require surgery. This consists of intervening on the maxillary bone, or on the mandibular and maxillary bone. The thought is to attempt to reconstruct them to realize a precise alignment.

Remember: Mandibular retrognathia isn’t only an aesthetic issue

Mandibular retrognathia is an issue that causes the mandible to be in an abnormal position, it’s situated further back than normal. Subsequently, the profile of those people shows a sunken chin and a concave shape.

The issue is that this condition can produce complications beyond aesthetics. For instance, it’s related to temporomandibular joint disorders and obstructive sleep apnea. It’s subsequently essential to attempt to diagnose and treat this condition as soon as possible.

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