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Can your beverage selections impact diabetes outcomes?

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Can your beverage selections impact diabetes outcomes?

In a recent study published in BMJ, researchers investigate how the consumption of varied kinds of beverages impacts the incidence of heart problems (CVD) and mortality amongst patients with type 2 diabetes.

Study: Beverage consumption and mortality amongst adults with type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study. Image Credit: nednapa / Shutterstock.com

Background

Recent estimates indicate that over 500 million adults throughout the world have diabetes. Individuals with type 2 diabetes are at a better risk of comorbidities comparable to CVD and premature mortality.

The glycemic management in type 2 diabetes patients depends largely on dietary interventions. Nevertheless, dietary guidelines and suggestions applicable to most people may not be relevant for people with type 2 diabetes. Thus, evaluating the impact of dietary components comparable to beverages on mortality rates and disease outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients is crucial.

Different beverages’ effects on health outcomes rely on the sugar content and other constituents within the beverages. Meta-analyses have reported that consumption of beverages with low sugar content, comparable to water, coffee, and low-fat milk, is related to a lower incidence of CVD, obesity, mortality, and kind 2 diabetes in the overall population.

Comparatively, beverages sweetened with sugar have been linked to a rise within the incidence of those diseases. Nevertheless, the impact of individual beverage consumption on the incidence of CVD or mortality amongst individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes stays unclear.

Concerning the study

In the current study, researchers use data from one study on a prospective cohort of female nurses between the ages of 30 and 55 years and one other cohort study on male health professionals between the ages of 40 and 75 years initiated in 1976 and 1986, respectively. The info comprised detailed information on aspects related to weight loss program, lifestyle, disease status, and medical history.

Participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at baseline or throughout the follow-up period were included within the study. Those with type 1 diabetes, cancer, or CVD at baseline or before being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at follow-up were excluded.

A food frequency questionnaire, which was administered at intervals of two to 4 years, was used to find out beverage intake of the participants.

The frequency and kind of beverages consumed were queried, including sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, tea, coffee, low-fat milk, fruit juices, and water. Sugar-sweetened drinks included caffeinated and noncaffeinated colas, carbonated beverages, and non-carbonated drinks comparable to lemonades and other fruit.

The first evaluated end result was all-cause mortality, while secondary outcomes included the incidence of CVD and mortality. Mortality was reported by next of kin, and the international classification of diseases, ninth revision codes were used to categorise the explanation for mortality as CVD, cancer, or other causes. Non-fatal and fatal stroke and coronary heart disease, in addition to surgery for coronary artery bypass grafts, were included in incident CVD.

Study findings

An increased intake of beverages sweetened with sugar was related to a better CVD incidence and risk of all-cause mortality, while the consumption of water, tea, coffee, and low-fat milk had an inverse association with all-cause mortality. Similarly, a rise within the consumption of tea and occasional after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was linked to a significantly lower incidence of all-cause mortality.

The all-cause mortality pooled hazard ratios were 1.20, 0.96, 0.98, 0.79, 0.74, 0.77, 0.88, and 1.20 for sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, fruit juice, tea, coffee, water, low-fat milk, and full-fat milk, respectively. Hazard ratio patterns were similar for CVD incidence, with a greater likelihood of CVD and mortality related to higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with hazard ratios of 1.25 and 1.29, respectively.

The danger of all-cause mortality and CVD incidence was lower for people who replaced sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, full-fat milk, and fruit juices with water, tea, or coffee after being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions

The outcomes suggest that individual beverages have various associations with the danger of all-cause mortality and CVD in type 2 diabetes patients.

A high intake of beverages sweetened with sugar or artificial sweeteners increased the all-cause mortality rate and the incidence and mortality related to CVD. Replacing these beverages with plain water, tea, or coffee reduced the all-cause mortality risk.

Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of healthy beverage selections in managing type 2 diabetes.

Journal reference:

  • Ma, L., Hu, Y., Alperet, D. J., et al. (2023). Beverage consumption and mortality amongst adults with type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study. BMJ 381. doi:10.1136/bmj2022073406

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