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Consuming mangos boosts gut microbiome diversity: Advantages for obese and obese individuals

In a recent study published within the journal Food Science and Nutrition, researchers at San Diego State University investigated how consuming fresh mango affects gut health and microbiome.



Weight loss plan has a major influence on gut microbial diversity and composition. Intake of fish and raw fruits has been shown to extend microbial diversity, while sugary drinks and fried foods can reduce diversity. Individual foods similar to fruits can alter the abundance of specific microbial species. Nutrition, phytochemicals, and fiber are abundant in mangoes, promoting good health. The fiber content can also positively affect the gut microbiome.

Study: The consequences of fresh mango consumption on gut health and microbiome – Randomized controlled trial. Image Credit: JIANG HONGYAN / Shutterstock

In regards to the study

In the current study, researchers assessed the results of mango intake on the gut microbiome, bowel movement habits, and permeability proteins. Eligible subjects were aged 18-55 with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 26 kg/m2. Individuals were excluded in the event that they were pregnant, smokers, users of antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics, or had inflammatory/metabolic diseases.

Following a crossover design, the study was conducted over an intervention period of 12 weeks with a minimum of 4 weeks of washout period. Participants were randomized to the mango or low-fat cookie group. Subjects received 100 kcal of fresh mangoes or low-fat cookies, each provided as pre-packaged items and consumed one pack each day for 12 weeks.

Stool samples were collected at baseline and the fourth and twelfth weeks of intervention. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated and quantified, and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing was performed. As well as, fasting blood specimens were obtained. Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), occludin (OCLN), and claudin 2 (CLDN2) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.

Bowel movement habits for seven days were examined using a questionnaire. Alpha diversity measures were evaluated using the Friedman rank sum and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Beta diversity was assessed using the Bray-Curtis index and visualized using principal coordinates (PCoA) and network analyses.

Findings

The study sample comprised 27 subjects (11 females and 16 males) aged 26 on average. The mean weight and BMI of participants within the mango group were 94.2 kg and 31.6 kg/m2; the typical weight and BMI of those within the low-fat cookie group were 94.8 kg and 31.9 kg/m2. In comparison with the mango intervention, the low-fat cookie intervention had the next Chao1 index at weeks 4 and 12 and abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) index at week 12.

Nonetheless, the mango intervention achieved higher Simpson and Shannon indices at week 4. Significant differences were observed within the Bray-Curtis index between interventions at week 12. The PCoA plot revealed no separation between groups except within the twelfth week when mango intervention samples dispersed more along axis 2.

The network evaluation showed that samples clustered mostly by subjects moderately than interventions. Firmicutes, Proteobacterium, and Bacteroidetes phyla were essentially the most abundant in each interventions. The Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio was not significantly different between groups. Each interventions caused unique changes in species at week 12 relative to baseline.

The mango intervention increased the abundance of Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens, Actinomyces naturae, Treponema refringens, Mogibacterium timidum, Salinococcus luteus, and Prevotella maculosa but decreased P. copri. Then again, the low-fat cookie intervention caused a rise within the abundance of Desulfovibrio butyratiphilus and Cyanobacterium aponinum but reduced that of Alloscardia omnicolens.

CLDN2, OCLN, and ZO-1 levels didn’t significantly differ between interventions or time points. The frequencies of bowel movements weren’t significantly different between interventions. Nevertheless, stool quantity barely increased within the mango group at later points relative to baseline but not within the low-fat cookie group. No significant differences were observed inside/between interventions in bowel movement regarding consistency, constipation, pain, or strain.

Conclusions

The researchers evaluated the results of mango intake on gut health and microbiome over 12 weeks. The mango intervention reduced Alpha-diversity measures but increased species evenness in comparison with the low-fat cookie group. This meant that consuming mangos led to fewer members of species but caused a more even distribution of abundance across species than consuming cookies.

Together, the findings indicate that mango consumption increased gut microbiome diversity after 4 weeks, with the best dissimilarities between intervention arms at week 12. Future studies should validate the ends in large samples, including individuals with different BMIs, and assess the results of various amounts of mango.

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